Till the beginning of the ‘Arab Spring’, Libya was considered one of the most sustainable states in the Arab world. Neither recurrent military conflicts (with Chad in 1972-1987, with Egypt in 1977), nor permanent tension in the region (according to the Index of Major Episodes of Political Violence developed by Center for Systemic Peace, in 1952-2012 an average indicator of internal and...

Immigration policy should be generous; it should be fair; it should be flexible. With such a policy we can turn to the world, and to our own past, with clean hands and a clear conscience.  John Fitzgerald Kennedy, “A Nation of Immigrants”, 1958   The long-brewing Civil War in Syria that blasted out to engender a mass movement of refugees in 2015 has created a long trajectory of...

Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the deepening relationship between Russian and Turkey showed itself in the first agreement designed to enhance their economic ties. The agreement was signed on March 15, 1977 and mainly embraced cooperation in the promotion of industrial development and energy affairs. Meanwhile, the parties also inked an agreement concerning scientific and technical...

Amid the trade war going on between China and the United States, one may ask how China, one of the poorest countries in the world a few decades ago, grew into an economy that could challenge the United States, the sole superpower existing in the contemporary world. The strategy that lies behind China’s current economic power is its decision to bandwagon on globalisation, first by establishing Special...

It was reported in October 2017 that President Donald Trump advised the U.S. trade representative to intimidate their South Korean counterparts by telling them he was a madman. “You tell [the South Koreans] if they don't give the concessions now, this crazy guy will pull out of the deal,” Trump said, referring to the U.S.-Korea free trade agreement. Interestingly enough, this report coincided...

Two of the most important directions of anti-Western thinking in today Russia are classical Eurasianism that originated outside the Soviet Union, in the 1920s-1930s, and post-Soviet, so-called “neo-Eurasianism.” The latter school of thought is far better known in the West than the former, and often also simply called “Eurasianism.” It has been, from the end of the 1980s, principally...

NATO`s campaign of Kosovo in 1999 was not simply a military operation of several countries against another one; in fact, as some scholars argue, it became a turning point for world order and brought about new challenges for political science.  NATO jets against Yugoslavia “represented nothing less than the beginning of the end of the Westphalian world order.” (Nichols, 2008) Set up in...

Family, or household, has always been one of the most important elements of a social fabric of any society- institutions, which, as Hall and Soskice claimed in their influential “Varieties of Capitalism” model, are embedded in time and tend to reproduce certain patterns of inequality and redistribution (this approach was shared by several distinguished analysts of the field, including Polanyi)....

The statement “Development as Freedom” was articulated by Nobel Peace Prize winner and famous economist Amartya Sen. He developed the idea of how freedom can be achieved not only by economic or technological development but from the freedom and the basic capabilities itself. In his book, he argues that freedom is part of our life which gives us strength “to have a reason to value...

In an auction in Alkmaar, a city in the Northern Netherlands, an aggregate of 90,000‎ guilders (ƒ‎‎) was generated from sales of tulips and other exotic flowers. A tulip sample named Viceroy was sold for ƒ4,203 while another tulip, Admirael van Enchuysen, was offered ƒ5,200.  To put into context, during much of the 17th century, an average outdoor laborer earned about...

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